The “Sons of God (Angels) ” and the “Daughters of Men (Women)”
“O Timothy! Guard what was committed to your trust, avoiding the profane and idle babblings and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge — by professing it some have strayed concerning the faith. Grace be with you. Amen.”1
“Therefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith, not giving heed to Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn from the truth.”
The early Christians were faced with a two-fold threat. Gnosticism (what is falsely called knowledge) resulted from viewing the Scriptures through a Platonic world view. Plato taught that physical matter was corrupt and that man is an immortal soul imprisoned in a flesh body. Escape from the body and the physical creation to ascend into heaven as pure spirit was the Platonic hope. This negated the true Christian hope, the resurrection of the body. And this is why many of the Corinthians denied the resurrection of the body, and why Paul sought to correct this error in 1 Corinthians 15.
Yet, Platonism and its “Christianized” version – Gnosticism – were not the only threat to primitive Christianity. Plato’s philosophy had previously invaded Jewish thinking in the three centuries before Christ, as is evident in some of the apocryphal books.
The Essenes were a significant Jewish sect that had fully embraced Platonic concepts, including the immortality of the soul. Josephus wrote that “they have no certain city, but many of them dwell in every city.”  They were Jewish mystics who spun elaborate mythologies and fables about angels.  The Book of Enoch, which contains the fornicating angels myth, was highly regarded by the Essene community, sometimes referred to as Enochic Judaism. Gabrielle Boccaccini writes:
“At the center of Enochic Judaism was neither the temple nor the torah but a unique concept of the origin of evil that made ‘fallen angels’ (the ‘sons of God’ also recorded in Gen 6:1-4) ultimately responsible for the spread of evil and impurity on earth. ‘The [Enochic] myths assert, deterministically on the one hand, that human beings are less the perpetrators than the victims of sin, which had its origins in the divine realm. On the other hand, they maintain that sin and evil originated not with God’s permission, but as a result of a rebellious conspiracy that was hatched behind God’s back.’
Taking up traditions that predate the postexilic origins of the movement, Enochic Judaism gave them a different interpretation than that provided within the Zadokite tradition. The cosmic rebellion of the fallen angels was not simply, as in the Mosaic torah, one of the primeval sins that characterized the ancient history of humankind. By crossing the boundaries between heaven and earth, the evil angels led by Semyaz and Azazel broke apart the divisions set by God at the time of creation. According to the Book of the Watchers, it was the mother of all sins, the original sin which corrupted and contaminated God’s creation from which evil relentlessly continues to spring forth and spread. As God said to the angel Raphael: ‘The whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azazel: to him ascribe all sin!’ (1 En 6:8). In the cosmic battle the rebellious angels were defeated by the good angels and imprisoned in chains ‘in a hole in the desert which is Dudael … [until] the day of the great judgment’ (6:4-6). The giants, the monstrous offspring of the unnatural union between angels and women, were killed (10:9-10), but their immortal souls survived as the evil spirits and continue to roam about the earth (15:8-10). As disturbing as this idea can be, God’s reaction limited but did not eradicate evil, until God will put an end to this evil world and will create a new world qualitatively different from, and discontinuous with, what was before.”
The book of Colossians warns Christians against Enochic Judaism, which included speculation and fables concerning the angelic realm. “Let no one cheat you of your reward, taking delight in false humility and worship of angels, intruding into those things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind.”8 The Essenes had many things in common with Christians. Yet they displayed a “false humility.” The Essenes had elaborate angelic mythologies similar to the Gnostic genealogies of aeons (gods). They sought to explain the existence of demons as the disembodied souls of a hybrid angel-human offspring of angels who fornicated with human women. Their alleged hidden knowledge, which puffed them up, was kept secret by them in a manner similar to modern Freemasons. Paul ordered Timothy to remain at Ephesus to counter their influence on that church.
“As I urged you when I went into Macedonia — remain in Ephesus that you may charge some that they teach no other doctrine, nor give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which cause disputes rather than godly edification which is in faith. Now the purpose of the commandment is love from a pure heart, from a good conscience, and from sincere faith,13 from which some, having strayed, have turned aside to idle talk, desiring to be teachers of the law, understanding neither what they say nor the things which they affirm.”15 … “Now the Spirit expressly says that in latter times some will depart from the faith, giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons, speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their own conscience seared with a hot iron, forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth.”16
Paul’s comments fit precisely the teachings of the Essenes, who forbid marriage and had very stringent dietary restrictions. “Doctrines of demons” can be interpreted two ways: either doctrines taught by demons or doctrines about the origin of demons. Since the latter fits perfectly with the Essene doctrine, and the rest of the passage describes the practices of Essene Enochic Judaism, it is most likely that Paul was actually condemning the myth about the origin of demons taught by the Jewish mystics. In doing so, he condemned the whole fornicating angels fable.
The influence of Platonism on both modern Judaism and modern Christianity cannot be overstated. The ancient Jewish mysticism of the Essenes developed into modern Cabbalism. Roman Catholicism adopted Plato’s heavenly destiny and immortality of the soul, as is evident in the teaching of purgatory and prayers to the saints. Protestant Christianity has not abandoned the basic underlying concepts. For two millennia
Christians have parroted the Jewish fable that just prior to Noah’s flood, angels descended from heaven and mated with human women, producing hybrid beings which God destroyed in the flood, and that demons are the disembodied, immortal souls of angel-human hybrids.
There is no denying the great popularity of this myth historically. Enochic Judaism invented this fable prior to Christ, based partly on Platonic concepts about the immortality of the soul. It became widespread among Christians from very early on, as Paul’s warnings to Timothy illustrate. Several of the early Church fathers taught it. Some opposed it. It remains popular today.
Some Christians claim that fallen angels are still mating with humans, and producing hybrid offspring. UFO abductions are even claimed to be cases of fallen angels taking human women for their perverse pleasures. However, to date no hybrid babies seem to have been produced by women who claim to have been abducted by aliens.
An examination of this topic, using sound biblical exegesis and investigative principles, is critically necessary if Christians are to avoid deception, particularly as it relates to the study of eschatology. This article is an attempt to deal with this topic using sound exegetical principles in all of the major passages involved in the debate. The place to begin is Genesis 6, from which this fable is allegedly drawn – the “sons of God” taking wives from “the daughters of men.”
2. Understanding the Genesis Context
Genesis was written as the introduction to the “Book of the Law” (Torah). Its purpose was to give the children of Israel a concise history of where they came from, and their special character as the covenant people of JEHOVAH. It traces the major events of God’s interaction with man from the creation of the world to the Israelites’ arrival in Egypt. God’s special covenant relationship with Israel is reflected throughout the book of Genesis. The description of the six days of creation in Genesis 1 was included so that Israel would understand the reason for the Sabbath commandment given to them. “Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God. In it you shall do no work: … For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.”  Thus, Genesis provides some of the foundational principles necessary for understanding God’s covenant relationship with Israel. It gives a historical account of the Abrahamic Covenant, which was the basis for Israel’s existence, and the reason why they were called God’s sons and daughters. Genesis ends with the Israelites in Egypt looking forward to their inheritance in the land God promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Moses even included God’s prophecy to Abraham that his descendants would be oppressed by another nation, but that He would miraculously deliver them from slavery. Thus, every part of Genesis was fundamental to Israel’s understanding of who they were as God’s covenant people.
The Torah was written during the forty years the Israelites wandered in the wilderness. All five books were collectively called, “The Book of the Law.” The original scroll written by Moses was placed in the tabernacle beside the Ark of the Covenant. The priests read the entire Torah to the Israelites regularly;  and the Israelites were commanded to rehearse its contents daily. “This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it. For then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success.” Thus, time after time as the Israelites heard the entire Torah read, they would interpret Genesis in light of their own special covenant with God, as the sons of God.
For many generations, the Book of the Law was the only canon of inspired Scripture for Israel. Moses had forbidden adding to the Torah. After the conquest of the land, Joshua appended his own book to the Torah, as Moses’ appointed successor. Thus from
About 900 years after Moses wrote the Torah, the “Book of the Law of JEHOVAH by Moses” was rediscovered in Solomon’s Temple during the reign of Josiah, king of Judah, after many years of neglect.30 Even at this very late date, the Torah alone was considered the Word of JEHOVAH to Israel through Moses. While a few of the scrolls of the early prophets existed at this time, most of the prophecies were yet to be fulfilled. Thus, Israel’s recognition of them as inspired Scripture was still in question. The first evidence of a collection of inspired books beyond the Torah comes from the time of Ezra after the return from exile in Babylon. Ezra himself read the entire “Book of the Law of Moses” in the presence of all Israel, as they recommitted themselves to obeying God’s Word. Thus, even in Ezra’s day – over a millennium after Moses wrote Genesis – the Torah was held in a unique place, above all books.
In his historical narrative, Moses outlined for Israel the fall of Adam, his expulsion from the Garden of Eden, and the curse upon ground. Yet, God did not leave Adam in a hopeless state. The “curse” contains a promise of eventual deliverance – the first prophecy of the coming Messiah.
Genesis 3:15 NKJV
5 And I will put enmity between you [the serpent] and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.”
The seed of the woman is Christ. The seed of the serpent is Antichrist.34 Yet, this is more than a prophecy of two individuals to appear on the scene thousands of years in the future. The term “seed” implies a genealogical descent – two different races with two different genealogical trees.
The Book of the Law makes it extremely clear that the “children of God” are those in a covenant relationship with Israel’s God, JEHOVAH. This special relationship between God and Israel was indeed based on a literal genealogical tree, with Abraham as the root, then Isaac, then Jacob, then the twelve patriarchs. Yet, the genealogy from Abraham to the “seed of the woman” (Messiah) was not exclusively genetic. Two other factors were involved as well. Foreigners could be adopted into Israel (by adopting Israel’s God and covenants), being reckoned “Israelites” in every way. We see in the genealogy of Jesus (the “Seed” who would crush the serpent’s head) that foreigners were reckoned as Israelites including Rahab the harlot and Ruth the Moabite. Also, Israelites who apostatized from God to serve pagan gods – which were demons – were cut off from Israel’s genealogical tree and the covenants. Those who apostatized from God and His covenants are considered the adopted children of the Devil.
God blessed Adam and Eve with two sons. Abel was righteous. But Cain became a murderer, a son of the devil, beginning the genealogy of the “seed of the Serpent.” “In this the children of God and the children of the devil are manifest: Whoever does not practice righteousness is not of God, nor is he who does not love his brother. For this is the message that you heard from the beginning, that we should love one another, not as Cain who was of the wicked one and murdered his brother. And why did he murder him? Because his works were evil and his brother’s righteous.”40 Thus, Cain became the patriarch of the seed of the Serpent – the first son of Satan by adoption. God put a curse on Cain and he and his family were separated from the rest of humanity. “Surely You have driven me out this day from the face of the ground; I shall be hidden from Your face; I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond on the earth. … Then Cain went out from the presence of the LORD and dwelt in the land of Nod on the east of Eden.”
Moses traced one of Cain’s lines of genealogy through six generations, down to Lamech. Moses then showed that Lamech was also a murderer. The genealogical link between Lamech and Cain was intentional, to demonstrate that wicked parents beget more wicked children who learn by the example of the parents. This also reinforced the Law of Moses for the Israelites, and why it was necessary to constantly teach righteousness to their children. “And these words which I command you today shall be in your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, when you walk by the way, when you lie down, and when you rise up. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.”
The names of Cain’s descendants reveal quite a bit about each generation of fathers. Irad means “fugitive.” Mahujael means “smitten by God.” Methusael means “I am man, who (or where) is God?” Immediately following Moses’ genealogical linkage between the murderers Lamech and Cain, we find the following account.
Genesis 4:25-26 NKJV
25 And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and named him Seth, “For God has appointed another seed for me instead of Abel, whom Cain killed.”
26 And as for Seth, to him also a son was born; and he named him Enosh. Then men began to call on the name of the LORD.
There is no question that Moses intended to draw a contrast between Cain’s descendants and Seth’s descendants. Adam and Eve had many other children; yet Moses gave no account of their genealogies.
The statement, “then men began to call on the name of the LORD,” was clearly meant to point to a beginning of a certain activity which continued afterward. The word “LORD” is JEHOVAH in Hebrew, the covenant name of Israel’s God. The word “men” is not in the Hebrew text, but was supplied by the translators. The Hebrew shows that Enosh was meant, not “men” in general. The Hebrew reads: “then he began to call out (upon or by) the name of JEHOVAH.” Young’s Literal Translation has, “And he called his name, Enos; then a beginning was made of preaching in the name of JEHOVAH.” Thus, “call out by” can refer to proclaiming the message of God in His name.
The KJV illustrates some uncertainty with a marginal note giving the alternate reading, “or, ‘to call themselves by the name of the LORD’.” This is the sense also of the same clause in Isaiah 44:5, “another shall call himself by the name of Jacob.”
Some have understood this statement to refer to the practice of naming children with compounds of the Lord’s name. This was a common practice of the Jews later. Many names in the Bible contain compounds of Elohim or JEHOVAH (eg. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Zechariah), and Elohim (eg. Samuel, Daniel, Ezekiel). However, the statement clearly has “the name of JEHOVAH” here and not “the name of Elohim.” So, any such compound birth names would have to be compounds of JEHOVAH if naming children with compounds of God’s name was meant. Yet, none of the names listed in Cain’s or Seth’s genealogies are a compound of JEHOVAH.
There are a few names that are compounds of Elohim. Two of them appear in Cain’s genealogy. Mehujael (smitten by God) no doubt had reference to the curse put upon Cain. Mehujael’s father apparently considered the curse to be of Cain’s entire genealogy. One can easily see the anger and resentment in such a name. This resentment was apparently passed on because Mehujael named his own son, Methushael (I am man, who is God?). The Hebrew word used for “man” here is “math,” most often used for men capable of combat. Certainly, Moses’ reported these names to impress upon his Israelite audience that this race of men was not only cursed, but remained in open rebellion against God, and bitter about the curse of their forefather, Cain. In contrast, we find both humility and hope in the names of the descendants of Seth. Enosh means “mortal,” no doubt in recognition of man’s fallen condition and his impending death.
Mahalalel means “praise of God.” Noah means “rest,” “relief,” or “comfort.” In any case, there are no names in either genealogy that are compounds of JEHOVAH.
The Septuagint agrees with the KJV marginal reading, “to call themselves by the name of the LORD.” The LXX reads as follows: “And to Seth, to him also was born a son, and he called his name, Enos. This one hoped, therefore he called to himself the name of the Lord God.” The Jewish translators of the Septuagint understood the Hebrew phrase to mean that Enosh took to himself the name of JEHOVAH. Moses used the same term in Genesis when Jacob blessed the sons of Joseph. “The angel who delivers me from all evils, bless these boys, and my name shall be called upon them, and the name of my fathers, Abraam and Isaac.” In this case it is clear that calling Joseph’s sons by the name of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, was a means of recognizing their part in the Abrahamic Covenant.
In what exactly did Enosh “hope” which motivated him to call himself by the name of JEHOVAH? The only possible answer is the promise of the “Seed” of the woman eventually overcoming the “seed” of the Serpent. Adam was a son of God, Seth was a grandson of God, and Enosh a great grandson of God, the first to begin to call himself by God’s covenant name. Four generations later, we find Enoch having such a close relationship with God, that he was transported without dying – a tribute to the godliness of Seth’s covenant line.
Enosh hoped in God’s promise – that the “Seed” of the woman (descended from a covenant people of JEHOVAH) would prevail against the “seed” of the Serpent (descended from an unholy race of children of Satan). He called himself by God’s covenant name, and became one of the patriarchs of the Messianic genealogy. No doubt this is why Luke traced Jesus’ genealogy back from Noah through Seth’s sons to God Himself. Jesus was “… the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, the son of Cainan, the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.”  All of these men were literally “sons of God.” Yet, because Cain gave himself over to Satan, he became an adopted son of the Wicked One.51
The concept of a segregated people of JEHOVAH – referred to as “the sons of God,” and called by the Name of JEHOVAH – was very familiar to the Israelites to whom Moses wrote. They were distinguished by exactly the same covenant terminology.
Deuteronomy 28:9-10 NKJV
9 “The LORD will establish you as a holy people to Himself, just as He has sworn to you, if you keep the commandments of the LORD your God and walk in His ways.
10 Then all peoples of the earth shall see that you are called by the name of the LORD, and they shall be afraid of you.
2 Chronicles 7:14 NKJV
14 if My people who are called by My name will humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land.
Deut 32:6 NKJV
6 Do you thus deal with the LORD, O foolish and unwise people? Is He not your Father, who bought you? Has He not made you and established you?
Deut 32:19 NKJV
19 “And when the LORD saw it, He spurned them, because of the provocation of His sons and His daughters.
Deuteronomy 14:1-2 NASB
- “You are the sons of the LORD your God; you shall not cut yourselves nor shave your forehead for the sake of the dead.
- “For you are a holy people to the LORD your God, and the LORD has chosen you to be a people for His own possession out of all the peoples who are on the face of the earth.”
Isaiah 43:5-7 NKJV
5 Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your descendants from the east, And gather you from the west;
6 I will say to the north, ‘Give them up!’ And to the south, ‘Do not keep them back!’ Bring My sons from afar, And My daughters from the ends of the earth —
7 Everyone who is called by My name, Whom I have created for My glory; I have formed him, yes, I have made him.”
In the Bible, the terms, “called by the name of JEHOVAH” and “sons of JEHOVAH” are synonymous, always referring to a covenantal people separated unto God, and distinct from the rest of the population. Being “sons of JEHOVAH your God” and being “called by the name of JEHOVAH” were synonymous in the minds of the Israelites. This is a critical component to understanding Moses’ hotly disputed comments in chapter 6.
3. The Sons of Seth according to Josephus
Josephus was a Jew who lived in the first century. He wrote a history of the Jewish people for the Romans. His sources were the Bible, Jewish oral tradition, and also many secular historical sources which are no longer extant. Much of his history relies on the Greek Septuagint version, including many of the dates given. Josephus gave a lengthy account of the sons of Seth in his Antiquities of the Jews.
“Now Adam, who was the first man, and made out of the earth, (for our discourse must now be about him,) after Abel was slain, and Cain fled away, on account of his murder, was solicitous for posterity, and had a vehement desire of children, he being two hundred and thirty years old; after which time he lived other seven hundred, and then died. He had indeed many other children, but Seth in particular. As for the rest, it would be tedious to name them; I will therefore only endeavor to give an account of those that proceeded from Seth. Now this Seth, when he was brought up, and came to those years in which he could discern what was good, became a virtuous man; and as he was himself of an excellent character, so did he leave children behind him who imitated his virtues. All these proved to be of good dispositions. They also inhabited the same country without dissensions, and in a happy condition, without any misfortunes falling upon them, till they died. They also were the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies, and their order. And that their inventions might not be lost before they were sufficiently known, upon Adam’s prediction that the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire, and at another time by the violence and quantity of water, they made two pillars, the one of brick, the other of stone: they inscribed their discoveries on them both, that in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries to mankind; and also inform them that there was another pillar of brick erected by them. Now this remains in the land of Siriad to this day.
According to Josephus:
- The sons of Seth were a righteous race that feared the Lord.
- They lived segregated from the rest of the population in their own country.
- They lived happy lives without violence or calamity.
- This tribe had a great understanding of the heavens and astronomy.
- They preserved God’s prophecies of the flood and Day of the Lord for posterity.
Josephus’ account of the sons of Seth, which was based partly on oral tradition, is consistent with our observations from the Bible.
4. The “Sons of God” and the “Daughters of Men”
Genesis 6:1-3 NKJV
- Now it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them,
- that the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all whom they chose.
- And the LORD said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.”
Those who hold to the idea of angels fornicating with women insist that “sons of God” refers to angels, not people. They derive this sense from Job where the same term refers to angels three times. Yet, there is no evidence that the Israelites, for whom Moses wrote Genesis, had any knowledge of the book of Job, or even that it existed at that time. No doubt, Job lived before Moses, as is evidenced by his great age. But, the internal evidence from the book of Job argues for a much later date, written from the land of Israel after the conquest. Job was not likely known by Moses’ audience. But, more importantly, the book of Job was not considered part of the Jewish inspired canon of Scripture until much later, most likely when the Hebrew canon was settled by Ezra after the Babylonian exile. The “Bible” of the Israelites to whom Genesis was written was exclusively “The Book of the Law of Moses.” Therefore, even if the book of Job existed, there is no reason to suppose that the Israelites would interpret Genesis based on it. Moses certainly expected his Israelite readers to understand Genesis 6 based on the immediate context, not on some obscure book that was not available to them nor considered sacred Scripture at the time, if it even existed. We therefore must interpret this passage as the original audience would have done with the limited knowledge available to them when it was written.
The clause translated “took wives” is never used in Scripture for fornication, adultery, or any improper sexual behavior. It always refers to the covenantal marriage relationship which God Himself ordained for mankind. Therefore, the union of the “sons of God” with the “daughters of men” was not rape, fornication, or any unnatural or improper sexual intercourse. It was exactly what the text says it was, a marriage in accord with the divine institution introduced for the readers of Genesis only four chapters earlier: “Then the rib which the LORD God had taken from man He made into a woman, and He brought her to the man. And Adam said: ‘This is now bone of my bones And flesh of my flesh; She shall be called Woman, Because she was taken out of Man.’ Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh.” Even the casual reader of Genesis six ought to notice that the plain sense of Genesis six and Jesus’ comments about angels not marrying settles the question decisively.
2 that the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all whom they chose.
30 For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels of God in heaven.
That “sons of God” refers to humans and not angels is plain from God’s immediate reaction to the “sons of God” taking wives from among the “daughters of men.” God said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” The crime was committed by “the sons of God.” If they were angels, why would God react against men of flesh and not angels? The Septuagint translates God’s reaction this way: “And the Lord God said, ‘My Spirit shall certainly not remain among these men forever, because they are flesh…’” The word “these” is the near-referent masculine plural demonstrative pronoun.” The entire substantive “these men” (points back in the context to a masculine plural near-referent – the “sons of God.” Therefore, the “sons of God” were clearly called “these men.” And the next clause says “they are flesh.” The Septuagint states emphatically, in two different ways, that the “sons of God” were men. The “sons of God” are “these men” and “they are flesh.”
Furthermore, God’s Spirit had formerly resided among the “sons of God” collectively, as He says, “My Spirit shall certainly not remain among these men forever.” God’s dwelling among a collective group by His Spirit is something unique to the sons and daughters of God – the covenant people of JEHOVAH. This is consistent in the Old and New Testaments.
Exodus 25:8 NKJV 8 And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them.
Exodus 29:45 NKJV 45 I will dwell among the children of Israel and will be their God.
Haggai 2:4-5 NKJV
4 “Yet now be strong, Zerubbabel,’ says the LORD; ‘and be strong, Joshua, son of Jehozadak, the high priest; and be strong, all you people of the land,’ says the LORD, ‘and work; for I am with you,’ says the LORD of hosts.
5 ‘According to the word that I covenanted with you when you came out of Egypt, so My Spirit remains among you; do not fear!’”
Isaiah 63:11 NASB
11 Then His people remembered the days of old, of Moses. Where is He who brought them up out of the sea with the shepherds of His flock? Where is He who put His Holy Spirit in the midst of them,
Paul stated, in Romans 8:14, that “as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God.” He referred to the local church as “a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.”And in the Kingdom of Messiah, “Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God.” The presence of God among His people collectively by means of His Spirit is one of the distinguishing marks of the “sons of God.” It is no coincidence that when the “sons of God” rebelled, God reacted by saying, “My Spirit shall certainly not remain among these men forever,” implying that His covenant relationship had been broken.
Some object that if the Sethite view was correct, the text would say “daughters of Cain” instead of “daughters of men.” Yet, the text actually says, “daughters of Adam.” According to Gen. 5:4, Adam lived 930 years and fathered many other sons (and daughters) besides Cain and Seth. The clause “daughters of Adam” is a much more generic term than “daughters of Cain.” This clause refers to the whole population of the earth, not just Cain’s descendants which would be only a fraction of the population. But the clause “sons of God” is very limited and specific to the segregated sons of Seth, distinguishing these men from the rest of the descendants of Adam. Thus Moses meant that the men of God’s separated covenant people saw the women from the general population, and took wives from among them. There would be no other way to describe women from the general population other than calling them “the daughters of Adam.”
By Tim Warner, Copyright © http://www.4windsfellowships.net
 Titus 1:13-14
 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, ch. viii:11 “For their doctrine is this: — That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtle air, and are united to their bodies as in prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinion of the Greeks…’”
 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, ch. viii:4
 Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection, p. 6 8 Col 2:18
 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, ch. viii
 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, ch. viii, “…the third sect [of Judasim] who pretends to a severer discipline, are called
 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Hendrickson, 4th printing, 1984, footnote pg. 477: “The mention of the “names of the angels” so particularly preserved by the Essens, looks like a prelude to that “worshipping of angels” blamed by St. Paul as superstitious and unlawful, in some such sort of people as these Essens were, (Coloss. ii.8).”
 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, ch. viii:7 “…and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though any one should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life.” 13 This was in contrast to the false humility of the Essenes and their monastic lifestyle.
 The Essenes were teachers of an esoteric knowledge from the Law of Moses, similar to Cabbalism.
 Tim 1:3-7
 Tim 4:1-3
 Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, ch. viii:2 “The Essens reject pleasures as an evil, but esteem continence, and the conquest over our passions, to be virtue. They neglect wedlock, but choose other persons’ children, while they are pliable and fit for learning.”
 As Jews, Essenes were strict observers of dietary restrictions in the Torah against unclean animals. Archaeological evidence shows that some Essenes were vegetarians: http://www.archaeology.org/9905/newsbriefs/vege.html
 Exodus 20:11
 Gen. 15:13-14
 Deut. 28:61
 Deut. 31:26
 Deut. 31:9-13
 Josh 1:8
 Deut. 14:1
 The Samaritan Pentateuch, which was the only inspired Scripture recognized by the northern Kingdom of Israel at the time of the Assyrian captivity, contains only the books of Moses.
 Deut. 4:2; Deut. 12:32
 Josh 24:26
 Chron. 34:14
 Many scholars believe that Ezra the priest compiled the first Hebrew canon of sacred Scriptures.
 Neh. 8:1-12
 Rev. 12:1-6
 Thess. 2:3
 Gen. 17:12-13; Ex. 12:48,49; Num. 15:14-16; Ezek. 47:22
 Matt. 1:5
 Deut. 32:16-17
 Lev. 20:1-7
 Matt. 13:38; John 8:44; Acts 13:10; 1 John 3:8-10
 John 3:10-12
 Gen. 4:14,16
 Gen. 4:23
 Deut 6:6-9
 Gen. 5:4
 Ex. 3:15-16 & Ex. 6:3
 The verb “called” is in the middle voice, hence “called to himself.”
 Gen 48:16
 Luke 3:38
 John 3:10-12
 The manuscript evidence for the reading “sons of God” in the Hebrew version of Job vs. “angels of God” in the Septuagint will be addressed in section IX of this paper.
 Job 42:16
 Job lived in the land of Uz (Job 1:1), which is identified as “Moab” (Jordan) in Jer. 25:20 & Lam. 4:21. The author of the book wrote that Job “was the greatest of all the people of the East.” (Job 1:3). Since “the east” is a relative term, it places the writer west of Uz where Job lived. This would put the author of the book across the Jordan river in the land of Israel. Consequently, the writing of the book would have been after the conquest of this land under Joshua. Also, the reference to “Satan” as a proper name (Job 1:6) was unknown to the Israelites until about the time of the Babylonian captivity (cf. 2 Sam. 24:1 & 1 Chron. 21:1, Zech. 3:1-2). For these reasons, the writing of the book of Job should be dated after the conquest of Canaan, perhaps as late as the Babylonian captivity, even though Job himself lived much earlier. The Israelites would have no knowledge of Job or this book when Genesis was written. Consequently, it would not likely provide a frame of reference for the term, “sons of God,” in Gen. 6. Furthermore, it is not very likely that Moses would leave the interpretation of the words “sons of God” to chance, relying on the hope that his audience would be familiar with the book of Job. It is much more credible to gain an understanding of the term from what Moses had written thus far, and from the Israelites’ own experiences at Mt. Sinai and their wilderness wanderings.
 Gen 2:22-24
 Eph. 2:22
 Rev 21:3