THE MARTYRDOM OF POLYCARP or THE LETTER OF THE SMYRNAEANS This revision into modern English is by Richard Neil Shrout, from the translation of J.B. Lightfoot. INTRODUCTIONJohn the Apostle ordained Polycarp bishop of Smyrna, a city north of Ephesus. After a lifetime of ministry, Polycarp was martyred at the age of 86 (eighty-six). This Epistle … Continue reading The Martyrdom Of Polycarp Bishop of Smyrna
Irenaeus preceded Tertullian as one of the early Christian apologists and defenders of the Pristine Faith against the Gnostic heretics. He was bishop of the church in Lyons, a city of Gaul (France). Irenaeus was a disciple of Polycarp, who had been taught by John the Apostle. He frequently appealed to Apostolic oral tradition in … Continue reading What did Irenaeus Believe?
The earliest Christian writers whose works have survived, those known to have direct connections to the Apostles, were Clement of Rome (disciple of Paul), and Polycarp of Smyrna and Ignatius of Antioch (both disciples of John). These authors had been personally instructed by the Apostles and were leaders within the Christian assemblies established by the … Continue reading 3. Fragments of the Apostolic Fathers – Evolution of God